Novi Sad is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Raised on marshy and unsuitable soil, as it was taken out of the water, a little bit from indocile Danube, a little bit from unforgettable Panon Sea.
According to earlier knowledge, on Petrovaradin fortress there was the first human settlement even 4500 BC , but after archeological findings on the very beginning of the researches on this area, that period is rather 19.000-15.000 BC.
In gratitude to that discovery, we now know that man inhabited the fortress from prehistory to the present, even in Paleolithic when human settlements could mostly be found in caves
Exploring the remains of the village from late Bronze Age, archaeologists have found the walls strengthened by slaughter and palisades from that period, which witnessed that even in that time a fortified settlement existed.
Although we guess there has always been a settlement on this ground, as it is the case in many other places in the world, somewhere in the sixteenth century the first citizens began to sort their modest huts across the Petrovaradin fortress.
Already at the end of next century the first citizen list was preserved (the oldest that is known).
It is believed that the present settlement on the left bank of the Danube was established
in 1694 or maybe a few years earlier, considering that it is almost certain that in 1692, when the construction of Petrovaradin fortress began, there were a lot of craftsman cottages on the left river bank for people who followed the builders and the military. This settlement was originally known as Racka town ( Raitzenstadt, Serbian town) and the Petrovaradin trench. In 1748 it became free royal town and got its present name Novi Sad, actually in the following way: wealthy citizens of Racka town, with 95.000 forints went to Vienna to buy a status of free royal city from Empress Maria Theresa.
In regard to that, on February the 1st 1748 she issued an edict. In the first census from 1698, there were 32 households. On the day of the Free royal city declaration, Novi Sad counted 841 houses and population of 4620 people. According to the census from that time, there were 3000 Orthodox, and around 1500 Catholics. The rest of people were Jews, who were not registered.
In 1880th Novi Sad had already 21.235, and in 1930 there was a three times higher number with 62.181 residents. In 1748, the time when Novi Sad acquired status of Free royal town, in today's Vojvodina, within the Habsburg Monarchy there were 50 Post Offices in the town.
In 1750 diligence for passengers and postal deliveries was introduced to the public. The first Post office in Novi Sad was opened on December 29, 1753 in Petrovaradin, where a large military garrison was situated. This post office served residents on both of Danube's banks.
One hundred years later, after many faithless appeals, the authorities met the demand of citizens and established Post office in Novi Sad.
The first telephone in the town was introduced in 1880, with in-city 1892 and long-distance calls in 1900. The railway has existed since 1883, when the Pest-Novi Sad railway was constructed. A horse-drawn omnibus was put into operation in 1901, Electrical Tram in 1911 and buses in 1930, up to 1958 when they completely replaced trams.
The first written record of crossing over the Danube, at this point is located in the Charter of Hungarian King Stephan V from 1267. In 1687 pontoon bridge is mentioned, in 1694 bridgehead, and in 1716 even two pontoon bridges. Floods and high waters of the Danube threatened Novi Sad in 1769/70, 1817, 1876, and 1940. Despite the record level of water in the Danube in 1965 (778cm), the city was defended from flooding. At the time of the revolution, on June 12th 1849 Hungarian troops started bombing the city from Petrovaradin fortress, and then the city was almost entirely destroyed in the fire.
The Serbian National elementary school was established in 1703, and Latin- Slavic school of Bishop Visarion Pavlović in 1731/32.
The Serbian reading room begun the work in 1845, the first daily newspaper 'Serbian Journal' was launched in 1852.
The Serbian National Theatre was
The hospital was opened in 1730 and Iodic bathroom 1910th.
Brick sewer system,
from the Fortress to the Danube was built
in 1725, and in the city 1880, providing the system from current Laza Kostić street, through Jewish street to the Gallery Square.
Artesian wells were dug in 1895, Pipe Well in 1906, and in 1952 the first meters of
urban water supply were constructed. The first Serbian town cemetery,was presumably situated at the place of present Dositej street, and later moved around certain churches. From 1929 to 1941 Novi Sad has been the headquarter of Danube Banovina.
Inevitable cultural and historical sights of Novi Sad are:
Petrovaradin Fortress 1692-1780
Nikolajevska Church (1730)
Assumption Church (1736)
Almaška Church (1797)
Congregational Church (1742)
The Roman Catholic parish church (1767-demolished 1921)
Franciscan Monastery of St. Juraj from the eighteenth century in Petrovaradin (1701-1714),
Snowy Church of Our Lady from Tekije,
built in the eighteenth century
in memory of the victory of the Austrian
army against the Turks (1716)
Reformed Calvinist Church (1865)
Evangelical Church (1886)
Ruthenian Greek-Catholic Church (1820)
Monastery in Kovilj (rebuilt 1705-1707)
Commercial and residential building
"At White Lion’s place’’
the oldest building in Novi Sad
at the corner of Dunavska and Zmaj Jovina street,
built in 1720.
"Greek school" in Grčkoškolskoj Street at number 3, built in 1780
"Plebanija" Catholic port (1808)
Miletićeva School in yard of Nikolajevska church (1872)
City Hall at Freedom Square, built in the Neo-Renaissance style 1894
The"Adamovic Palace" in the Newlyweds Square, built in 1911.
The building of the Museum of Vojvodina in Danube Street built in 1900. The
Gymnasium "Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj" raised in 1910.
The St.Rok Catholic Church from 1801
Rebuilt after 1849 destruction
The Serbian National Theatre (1981),
Sports Centre "Vojvodina" (1981).
Building of Serbian Heritage:
Heritage was not moved in this building
until 1924, although it was built in 1913
Nikola Tanurdžić was a well- known Novi Sadian trader,
the construction of the palace lasted from 1933 until
1940 when he finished reconstruction.
Clock tower on Fortress:
Clock tower at Ludwig bastion dates from eighteenth century.
Small hand shows minutes and great hand hours, so that it can be better seen from distance what’s the time. Diameter of the clock circle is two meters.
Build in the period between 1692 and 1776 this fortification on the right bank of the Danube has long time been an important strategic point in battle against Turks. The project was done, by then the most modern system created by French architect Sebastian Vauban. The main defense consisted of 400 cannons with 12,000 loophole, and famous victory of Eugene of Savoy who defended the fort with 70,000 soldiers from the three times superiors Turks, demonstrated validity of the fortification.